Futurology ~ Cosmic seasons, submarine metamaterial, brain-like AI, wacky asteroid, Turing chemistry


If Jupiter and Saturn hopped around early in the Solar System’s history, they might have caused quite a commotion – and this asteroid may be evidence of that cosmic dance.

Distant planets affect out climate — Jupiter and Venus are such strong influences because of their size and proximity. Venus is the nearest planet to us – at its farthest, it’s ‘only’ about 260 million kilometres (162 million miles) and it’s roughly similar to Earth in mass. Jupiter is much farther away, but is the Solar System’s largest planet. The study says that every 405,000 years, due to wobbles in our orbit caused by the gravitational pulls of the two planets, seasonal differences here on Earth become more intense. Summers are hotter and winters colder; dry times drier, wet times wetter.
The results showed that the 405,000-year cycle is the most regular astronomical pattern linked to the Earth’s annual turn around the sun. Now we are in the middle of the cycle, as the most recent peak was around 200,000 years ago.
~ So you don’t need to shop for that season quite yet. 

Metamaterial bends water-born sound — Some of these materials (engineered objects with specific properties) display mind-bending physical properties including the blackest black, and ‘anti-magnets’. One potentially important metamaterial would be one that could control the direction of sound waves. Researchers led by research associate Amanda Hanford recently debuted their attempt at creating a sound-scattering metamaterial at the 175th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America in Minneapolis. The researchers created the 90cm perforated steel pyramid, put it in a tank of water, and hit it with sound waves between 7000 and 12000 Hz in frequency. The material seemed to deflect the waves, based on the readings in the tank’s receivers.
~ Submarine cloaking device, then? 

Navigation AI develops brain-like location tracking — Now that DeepMind has solved Go, the company is applying DeepMind to navigation. Navigation relies on knowing where you are in space relative to your surroundings and continually updating that knowledge as you move. DeepMind scientists trained neural networks to navigate like this in a square arena, mimicking the paths that foraging rats took as they explored the space. The networks got information about the rat’s speed, head direction, distance from the walls, and other details. To researchers’ surprise, the networks that learned to successfully navigate this space had developed a layer akin to grid cells. This was surprising because it is the exact same system that mammalian brains use to navigate.
~ Or not, in my case sometimes. New Lynn, what do you do to my built-in GPS!!??

Wacky asteroid — A rock that formed in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter seems to have somehow travelled to the orbit of Neptune, according to a new observation. When they took a closer look at it with the Very Large Telescope in Chile, it appeared to have been made of materials normally associated with asteroids much closer to the Sun (ie iron, silicon and carbon). Planets and asteroids are usually composed from the stuff that was available in the region where they formed.
~ Maybe it’s lost in space. 

Turing’s chemistry hypothesis as a Destination Filter — Alan Turing is rightly famed for his contributions to computer science. But one of his key concepts – an autonomous system that can generate complex behaviour from a few simple rules – also has applications in unexpected places, like animal behaviour. One area where Turing himself applied the concept is in chemistry, and he published a paper describing how a single chemical reaction could create complex patterns like stripes if certain conditions are met. It took us decades to figure out how to actually implement Turing’s ideas about chemistry, but we’ve managed to create a number of reactions that display the behaviors he described. And now, a team of Chinese researchers has figured out how to use them to make something practical: a highly efficient desalination membrane.

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